The development of chemists is used to the needs of medicine since ancient times. Thus, the study of compounds of mercury and arsenic by Paracelsus formed the basis of iatrochemistry is the science of using certain chemical compounds for the treatment of diseases. The discovery of substances capable of destroying various microbes in the environment formed the basis.
So, for disinfection of tissues during operations D. Lister used phenol solutions P. Koch solutions of chlorine mercury, and in 1909, Stretton discovered the disinfecting properties of solutions of iodine in alcohol.
- Arsenic-based compounding, successfully carried out by P. Ehrlich, laid the foundation for chemotherapy is a method of treating any infectious, parasitic disease or malignant tumor (cancer) with the help of poisons or toxins.
- Another important discovery of chemists for medicine was the synthesis of various sera, which allow them to develop immunity to a specific disease.
Chemical organic synthesis is the basis of the pharmaceutical industry (drug manufacturing). Sources for the synthesis of drugs are inorganic (rocks, ores, gases, sea and lake water) and organic raw materials (wood, herbs, oil, natural gas).
- There are two classifications of drugs are pharmaceutical, which is used in medical practice and chemical, used in the synthesis of drugs.
- A special place in the pharmaceutical industry is the production of analgesic antibacterial and chemotherapeutic agents, vitamins and hormones.
These substances are characterized by several types of action – analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. According to the chemical structure, these substances can be divided into salicylic acid derivatives (aspirin, sodium salicylate, etc.) and pyrazolone (amidopyrine, antipyrine, analgin, butadione).
Most of the hypnotic drugs are barbituric acid derivatives, although the acid itself has no hypnotic effect. According to the mechanism of influence on the central nervous system, they are classified as narcotic substances.
Long-acting drugs (barbital, phenobarbital), medium duration (nitrazepam, barbamyl) and short-acting drugs (noxiron, hexa-barbital) are distinguished from hypnotic drugs.
Antibacterial and chemotherapeutic agents
This group of drugs includes antiseptics and disinfectants. This primarily includes sulfa drugs (sulfadimezin, sulfazin, norsulfazol, etazol, etc.) and antibiotics. The mechanism of action of sulfonamides is based on the structural analogy of their structure and the structure of folic acid, which is synthesized by many bacteria. Make a visit to www.exchemistry.com for more.
Vitamins are a group of low molecular weight organic compounds characterized by the simplicity of the chemical structure and the diversity of chemical nature. These substances were combined into a special group due to their absolute necessity for a heterotrophic organism as an integral part of food. Since the discovery of the chemical nature of vitamins occurred after the establishment of their biological role, the vitamins were conditionally designated by the letters of the Latin alphabet (A, B, C, D, etc.).